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The main raw material for copper smelting is flotation concentrate. This fine fine concentrate is suitable for treatment in the reverberatory furnace. Therefore, with the development of flotation method, the reverberatory furnace has been widely used.
There are two ways to smelt ice copper in a reverberatory furnace. One is smelting of raw concentrate and the other is baking smelting.
1 When the copper sulfide concentrate is directly smelted in a reverberatory furnace, the basic process of smelting is the smelting of sulfides and the slag formation of gangue. This smelting method is called raw concentrate smelting.
The advantage of smelting raw concentrate is that the roasting system is eliminated, the investment cost is reduced, the amount of soot is less, the slag contains less copper, and the metal yield can be increased by 3% to 3.5%; the disadvantage is that the concentrate contains water and helps to smelt At the time of fuel consumption, the melting rate is slow and the productivity is low.
2 When the copper bromide obtained by direct smelting of copper sulfide concentrate is too low, if it is less than 20%, it must be pre-calcined to be converted into a calcine containing a certain amount of metal oxide. When the calcine is added to the reverberatory furnace for melting, in addition to sulfide segregation and gangue slag formation, there is also a mutual reaction between the sulfide and the oxide, and this smelting method is called calcine smelting.
In addition to desulfurization and removal of some impurities, the calcination allows the charge to be well mixed in the roaster and preheated, and the water is completely evaporated. The addition of hot calcined sand to the reverberatory furnace improves the smelting conditions of the reverberatory furnace, and thus the reverberatory furnace of the smelting calcine is more productive than the smelted concentrate. However, due to the development of mineral processing technology, the grade of copper concentrate is improved, and the refining furnace smelting concentrate is increased.
The reverberatory furnace is lined with refractory bricks, one end has a burner for heating, and the other end has a flue for discharging the furnace gas, and the mixed charge composed of concentrate or calcine, return material, flux, etc. is added through the feeding ports on both sides of the furnace top. Forming a material slope in the furnace, the material slope is immersed in the molten pool, and abuts against the inner surface of the furnace wall and the bottom of the furnace, and the fuel is burned on the surface of the furnace charge, thereby heating, melting, slag forming and forming ice copper.
The characteristics of the reverberatory furnace melting glacial copper are as follows.
1 The charge immediately enters the high temperature zone of 1773~1823K, and melts quickly at the place where it is added. Therefore, the charge should be pre-mixed and the particle size is less than 3~5mm to obtain a good economic index of smelting technology.
2 The furnace is a micro-oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. In order to achieve a higher temperature in the furnace, the fuel is burned in a limited excess of air, from 10% to 15%.
3 heat utilization is low. When the reverberatory furnace is smelting, the furnace gas does not pass through the charge and flows only from the surface of the charge. Therefore, only a small part of the charge is contacted with the furnace gas, so that the heat utilization rate is only 25% to 30%.
The furnace gas has a small oxygen content, generally less than 1.5%, and has limited contact with the charge. Therefore, during smelting, the gas and the charge do not have obvious chemical effects, mainly the interaction between the solid charge and the liquid charge.
5 The furnace material forms a material slope along the side wall, so that the furnace wall is not corroded by the slag.
Since the first smelting copper-copper reverberatory furnace was completed and put into production in 1899, it gradually replaced the position of the blast furnace in the pyrometallurgical copper, and became the main method of copper smelting. Later, in the longer period, the reverberatory furnace was in the ruling The status of copper. This situation is formed because the reverberatory furnace can basically adapt to the needs of production development.
The advantages of the reverberatory furnace are strong and reliable, long life, high productivity, easy operation, and great adaptability to fuels and raw materials. The disadvantage is that the reverberatory furnace uses the radiant heat of the high-temperature flame generated by fuel combustion to smelt, the heat efficiency is low, the fuel consumption is high, the amount of flue gas is large, and the flue gas contains a low amount of S02 (about 1%), which cannot be economically recovered and discharged into the atmosphere. Environmental pollution; in addition, there is a large area of the reverberatory furnace and high construction costs.
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