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The ferroalloy electric furnace should correctly select the required lining material according to the different requirements of the actual production and the different parts of use. It not only guarantees the quality of use, but also minimizes the cost. The commonly used refractory materials can have good resistance to the most important factors causing damage, and there is a proper fit between the selected materials to ensure that the life of the linings in each part is similar during use, preventing local premature damage and causing the furnace to be scrapped. It affects production or causes thermal shutdown to increase power consumption. It is also necessary to pay attention to the selection of materials to match the requirements of the location of use to reduce costs and save resources.
Common lining materials for ferroalloy furnaces are:
(1) Clay refractory material: It can resist acid slag, has good heat and cold resistance, has good heat preservation capacity and certain insulation, but has low refractoriness (1600~1750°C), and should not be used at high temperature. . Multiple masonry is built in the submerged arc furnace to expose part of the lining, furnace bottom and carbon brick outer layer, which can play the role of moisturizing and insulating: lining iron lining.
(2) High-aluminum brick: Al2O3 is the main component, and its high refractoriness, acid-resistant alkaline slag turbidity, and cold-heating resistance. China's high-alumina vanadium is rich in resources, and its product performance is far better than clay bricks. It is a promising refractory material. In the production of ferroalloys, the bricks and ladle linings used to build iron outlets, as well as the tops of refining furnaces, blast furnace shafts and hearths.
(3) Magnesia refractory materials: generally contain MgO 80%~85% or more, commonly used are magnesia, magnesia brick, magnesium aluminum brick, magnesia silicon brick and so on. Its refractoriness is up to 2600 ° C, it has excellent corrosion resistance to alkaline slag, thermal conductivity and high conductivity at high temperature, low load softening point (1470~1500 ° C), poor resistance to chilling heat (only 1~2 times), it will be pulverized by the action of water or steam at high temperature. Used in the production of ferroalloys for the construction of refining furnace linings, ferrochrome and medium and low carbon ferromanganese ladle. In order to overcome the shortcomings of its resistance to cold and heat, the crack-resistant chrome-magnesia bricks are used abroad to build the furnace roof. China uses chrome concentrate powder as a filler for magnesium brick joints, and the effect is better. The magnesia made of fused magnesia is the raw material for knotting the bottom of the furnace and plugging the iron mouth.
(4) Carbonaceous refractory materials, neutral refractories composed of carbon or compounds as basic components, including carbon bricks and silicon carbide products. The advantages of carbon brick are many, high refractoriness (3000~4000 °C), as long as it is not oxidized, it is difficult to melt damage; it has good resistance to chilling and heat; high compressive strength, good wear resistance, small thermal expansion coefficient, large electric conductivity and thermal conductivity. ; slag resistance is particularly good. The disadvantage is that it is easily oxidized when it is in contact with an oxidizing gas such as air or water vapor at a high temperature. Oxidation starts at 500 ° C, and the temperature rises very quickly. Carbon is also easily eroded by certain elements of carbides that are easily bonded to carbon. The thermal inertia and insulation of the carbon-lined furnace body are relatively poor.
Carbon brick raw materials are easy to obtain, easy to manufacture, and their performance advantages make carbon bricks more and more widely used. Most ore furnaces and almost all types of rough alloys, except those with strict requirements on carbon, They are all lined with carbon bricks. The furnace below the blast furnace tuyere, the iron trough is also mainly made of carbon brick.
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